Robots are technological tools that perform the tasks assigned to them by using specific codes written for them. Since robotics is quite important in the future, the interest in coding robots is inclining today. However, while talking about how to code robots, it should be known that coding robots is not limited to writing codes; It is a complex and long process.
The prerequisite to build and code a robot is to know how to code. There are many ways to learn coding. Educational institutions are the places that come to mind first to learn coding and robotic coding. However, they are not the only places. There are many external institutions that teach coding, robotics, and how to code robots. In addition to these, there are many platforms like Riders with online robotics courses that teach coding, robotics, and how to code robots.
Every robot and its purposes must be thought before it is coded and built. After having become competent, determining the purpose of the robots to be coded is the first step. For those who will be coding robots for the first time, it would be correct to turn to simpler robots. The purpose and limitations of the robots should be defined and designed.
One of the steps before coding robots is sensor selection. Robots receive support from their sensors in applying the codes written. A large number of sensors are used for this purpose, such as ambient temperature detection sensors, line detection sensors, and moisture detection sensors. While selecting the sensors, the intended use of the robot should be considered.
The concept of algorithm refers to the steps used to solve an existing problem or achieve a specific goal. The algorithms used in this direction have a beginning and an end. The process, the order, and the starting point and the ending point are designed through algorithms. Algorithms are the basis of all programming applications. It is not possible to talk about a program that does not have an algorithm. When designing an algorithm, all possibilities should be considered. If there is a gap in any part of the algorithm, the functions of the robot to be coded will be missing.
The last thing to do before coding robots is to prepare the robots’ electrical circuits. The electronic circuits of robots are used to activate the sensors in an orderly fashion, taking into account the incoming orders. The electronic circuit must be completed in a way that is compatible with the sensor and able to correctly perceive incoming orders at the same time. These electronic circuits should include sensor circuits, microcontroller circuits, motor drive circuits, and voltage regulated circuits.
It is the programming languages that make the coding and running of robots possible. There are a number of languages that can be used to code robots. However, there are certain benefits and difficulties that each coding language has. Therefore, it is important to choose the most appropriate language based on one’s skills and abilities to code robots. Python is one of the most ideal coding languages for beginners. This language is preferred because Python has easy-to-read codes. Those who have more advanced knowledge can choose any of the coding languages such as Java, C, PhP, or Visual Basic.
After completing the steps above and selecting the language to be used to code robots, the coding process should be executed. The main point to be considered here is to know the input and output pins of the microcontrollers in the electrical circuit with the algorithm previously determined. Therefore, the microcontrollers that will be used should be determined in advance, and a series of tests should be conducted on them. Care should be taken in order not to make mistakes while writing the code because robots perceive codes as a whole. If there happens to be a missing part in the code, robots cannot perform the functions expected from them to perform. The code written should be translated into the machine language with a suitable compiler and transferred to the programmer and microcontroller.
Robots basically consist of three main components. These are mechanical hardware, electronic hardware, and software. All three must be integrated and connected flawlessly to ready robots for testing before use.